Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology. Green Roofs: Ecological Design and Construction. Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA. Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Whitelaw and E. Roof Gardens: History, Design, and Construction. Norton, New York. Velazquez, L. In most situations, direct sunlight brings excessive heat and light leading to visual and thermal discomfort.
Skylights designed to provide daylighting should contain diffusing rather than clear glazing. Controlling solar gain through skylights is critical to building energy efficiency. Vertical glazing design must include glare and heat control.
Large areas of unprotected glass do not result in well-daylit buildings. A well-designed and controlled daylighting system will reduce energy use. Ceilings and walls should be light colored with high reflectance. Office partitions and cubicles should be as low as possible while meeting privacy needs.
Unless electric lighting is dimmed or switched off, there are no savings of electricity or reductions in cooling load. Without controls, even a well-designed daylighting system will require the use of more, not less, energy.
Toplighting allows even levels of diffuse light to be distributed across large areas of a building. For this reason, successful toplighting is typically easier to achieve and requires less complex electric lighting controls. Sidelighting tends to be more complex. Size, location, visual transmittance, and energy performance characteristics of glazing must be carefully refined. Glare control, involving window overhangs, interior light shelves, glazing choices, as well as interior shades or blinds, is critical.
Because daylight illuminance drops off with distance from the windows, electric lighting controls become more complex. Daylighting is a key to good energy performance, as well as occupant satisfaction, productivity, and health.
Daylighting must be addressed early in schematic design because requirements for successful daylighting usually have major implications for building massing and zoning of activities. In order to make sense of daylighting system performance and the many design strategies used to deliver daylight, it is critical to understand this key measurement that is universally used to quantify and assess daylight illuminance.
Absolute values of daylight illuminance are often not a useful metric for design. As a ratio a relative measure daylight factor is generally stable across time and therefore much more useful and usable as a design tool—although at some point in the design process a daylight factor will typically need to be related to an illuminance value.
DF is dimensionless the illuminance units cancel and is expressed either as a percentage for example, 2. Daylight factor is position-specific; there will be a range of daylight factors in any given space. Daylight factor literally represents the efficiency of the entire daylighting system in delivering daylight from the exterior environment to a specific point within a building.
Recommendations for minimum daylight factors may be obtained from numerous resources. The illuminance values will change throughout the day, while the daylight factors will be reasonably constant throughout the day under similar sky conditions. Other minimum daylight factor requirements or recommendations can be found in the building codes or lighting standards of many countries. In the absence of other criteria, Table 4. Using daylight factor as a design target is straightforward. These targets may come from the client, from codes, from standards or guidelines, or from the environmental or economic values of the design team.
DF criteria may also be derived from a design intent to displace wholly or in part electric lighting. In this case, a target DF would be established on the basis of required design illuminance values. In other cases, DF targets are explicitly linked to a specific outcome such as no use of electric lighting between the hours of A. Electric lighting will be required for most of the daylight hours.
Depending upon the task at hand, electric lighting may not be necessary during daylight hours. Surface reflectances must be carefully modeled for accurate predictions. There are a number of analog, digital, and correlational methods that can be used to predict the daylight factor likely to be experienced at some point in a building under design.
These methods typically give rough feedback on whether a daylight strategy can meet established performance criteria. The 2. Daylight factor is easily measured in a completed building with the use of paired illuminance meters.
The measurement of in-situ DF values would be an expected element of any serious post-occupancy evaluation POE of a daylit building. Based upon recommendations or requirements that are most applicable to the context of the project, establish daylight factor criteria for the various spaces in the building being designed. These will typically be minimum values, rather than point-specific targets.
Size daylighting apertures using available schematic design guidance or trial and error. Model the daylighting performance including daylight factors of the proposed daylighting system.
Modeling tools include physical scale models, computer simulations, and hand calculations. Revalidate daylighting design using modified parameters; iterate as necessary to meet design criteria. A sidelighting approach is selected as views are also considered important by the design team. Using available design guidelines see, for example, Sidelighting windows are sized to provide the target daylight factor.
Building layout is critical to the success of this daylighting approach. Adjust selected daylighting design parameters aperture size, glazing transmittance, surface reflectances, light shelves, etc. Select the daylighting approach or combination of approaches most likely to provide performance to match the criteria established in Step 1. Daylighting approaches include sidelighting, toplighting, and special designs involving light pipes or guides.
See the Toplighting and Sidelighting strategies that follow. A physical daylighting model is used to test the proposed daylighting design. The proposed design provides minimum DFs of over 2. The aperture sizes in these spaces are increased.
Although daylight factor plays an important role in benchmarking daylighting during schematic design, it is equally valuable as a performance indicator during design development and postoccupancy evaluations. Several green building rating systems use a minimum daylight factor as a threshold for daylighting credits. Brown, G. Recommended Practice of Daylighting RP Moore, F.
McGraw-Hill, Inc. Square One Research. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 10th ed. Daylighting schemes can be developed and tailored to meet the particular needs and conditions of associated spaces with similar daylighting needs—thus optimizing the design strategy for each zone.
Usage schedule: The primary time s of use of a space and how those times relate to daylight availability will determine daylight potential and influence zoning. Optimizing daylight access for zones where lighting needs can be largely met by daylighting suggests maximizing the building perimeter and the use of toplighting for critical interior spaces. Daylighting decisions often result in a building with a higher skin-to-volume ratio than a typical compact electrically lit building.
Sometimes what makes sense from a daylight zoning point of view does not work from a functional point of view. The design team will need to resolve any such conflicts. COOLING Site conditions may constrict solar access such that it is not possible to utilize daylighting as much as desired or to accommodate a desired zoning scheme while addressing required design adjacencies and circulation needs.
Glazing, light shelves, and shading devices should be selected and designed to reinforce proposed daylight zoning schemes. Interior partition arrangement can have a dramatic impact on daylight distribution and thus on daylighting zones. List and define the types of spaces that will be present in the building. The use of daylight zoning is illustrated in Figure 4. Application of the 2. Determine required ambient and task illuminance values for the various space types based upon the visual activities that will be performed.
Outline an anticipated schedule of usage and daylighting potential for each space type in a table as per the example in Table 4. Group rooms into zones based upon similar lighting needs considering ambient and task needs , complementary schedules, corresponding uses, and thermal comfort requirements. Arrange building massing, plans, and sections to allow these zones to optimize daylighting potential by placing zones with higher illuminance needs nearest daylighting apertures and zones with lower illuminance needs further from daylighting apertures.
Verify the potential performance of daylighting strategies for each of the different daylight zones. Two general guidelines—the 2. Figure 4. This rule suggests that with good window design, on average a ft [4. Spaces farther than 30 ft [9. Windows along an exterior wall constitute the most commonly used daylighting strategy—sidelighting.
With sidelighting, daylight levels in a room will tend to be higher on the aperture side of the room and decrease moving away from the aperture wall. This rule suggests that significant levels of daylight will only reach into the room a distance of 2. Angel Abbey Library in St. Benedict, Oregon. During design development, careful consideration and design of daylighting controls—time clocks, photocontrols open loop versus closed loop , and switching versus dimming—is critical to an energy-saving daylighting system.
Open loop controls sense incoming daylight and raise electric lighting to a predetermined level to augment the daylight. Closed loop controls sense the combined effect of daylight and electric light in the space, and raise the electric lighting until a target illuminance is met. Open loop systems are cheaper and easier to commission.
Industrial, and many retail, buildings can use switching strategies instead of dimming. Switching is cheaper and the controls are simpler. Baker, N. Fanchiotti and K. Steemers eds. Bell, J. Designing Buildings for Daylight. Daylighting and Window Design. Code for Lighting. Guzowski, M. Daylighting for Sustainable Design. Concepts and Practice of Architectural Daylighting.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Rea, M. Daylighting Performance and Design, 2nd ed. Any system that delivers daylight onto a horizontal task plane generally from above is considered a toplighting strategy—a few of which include skylights as the daylight aperture, sawtooth roof glazing arrangements, or clerestories located high within a space often in concert with a reflecting ceiling plane.
Toplighting is an ideal strategy under overcast sky conditions because overcast skies have a greater luminance at the zenith overhead than at the horizon. Toplighting is usually easily coordinated with electric lighting systems. Daylighting from above, rather than the sides, allows for greater latitude in how the walls of a space are used.
Additionally, light scoops, clerestories, roof monitors, and skylights all provide opportunities for architectural expression in the building form. An inherent limitation to toplighting is single story construction or toplighting only the uppermost floor of a multistory building.
A toplit building can, however, have great depth—as lighting access is not limited to the walls and is freed of the 2. Toplighting encourages the activation of the ceiling plane, an area often forgotten in the design process. Illuminance measurements with the electric lighting on and off show the light distribution through the space and the influence of daylight from the skylights.
No amount of daylight will convince users that a leaky roof is acceptable. Direct solar radiation must also be addressed. Toplighting could exacerbate solar gain in the summer by allowing high altitude sun angles entry into a space—if not properly shaded e.
Direct solar radiation can cause substantial visual discomfort due to excessive contrast. Finally, consider that most building users want a visual connection to the outdoors regardless of interior illuminance, which will not be provided by translucent skylights. This does not preclude the use of combined toplighting and sidelighting systems.
Illuminances are additive, such that the contribution of one system can be added to that of another system. Establish target daylight factors for the various spaces and activities to be toplit. See the Daylight Factor strategy for suggested daylight factors. A ft2 [ m2] ball-bearing factory in Brazil will be toplit to lower energy costs and provide a more pleasant working environment. Arrange the building spaces and floor plan layouts such that those areas to be toplit have a roof exposure.
The factory is a single story building; all spaces have roof exposure. Determine what type of toplighting aperture e. This is a complex design issue and there is no single best answer although horizontal skylights should generally be avoided in hot climates.
The design team decides to use a vertical roof monitor aperture to more easily control the intense direct solar radiation that occurs in this climate.
Evaluate different glazing options for the aperture. In general the glazing should have a high visible transmittance VT value to maximize daylight entry. In hot climates a low solar heat gain coefficient SHGC is generally desirable to minimize solar heat gains.
A high VT glass is chosen because the aperture will be shaded by external shading devices rather than by the glazing itself. The roof form is designed to improve the diffusion and distribution of daylight—to the extent practical in schematic design. A shading device to block direct solar radiation during the summer is designed; the device also facilitates a more diffuse distribution of light.
Arrange surfaces adjacent to the toplighting apertures to diffuse entering light to reduce contrast a potential cause of glare and more evenly distribute daylight throughout the space. Evaluate the need for shading for the toplighting apertures and design appropriate devices to provide the necessary shading. The assumption that daylighting provides more energy-efficient illumination than electric lighting is dependent upon the exclusion of direct solar radiation from daylighting apertures.
Failure to provide appropriate shading will result in increased cooling loads and the potential for glare. One of the dual-function roof pods as seen from the roof left and from the floor below right.
Daylight in Architecture. Architectural Record Books, New York. The preliminary sizing of apertures undertaken during schematic design will be verified by more accurate modeling studies during design development.
Aperture details including shading and diffusing elements will be finalized during design development, along with integration of daylighting and electric lighting controls. Commissioning of daylightingrelated controls is strongly recommended. International Energy Agency. Daylight in Buildings. Graphic Daylighting Design Method. Stein, B. Any system that delivers daylight onto a horizontal task plane generally from the side is considered sidelighting.
Sidelighting approaches often utilize windows as the daylight aperture—but glass block, low clerestories, and vertical openings into light courts or atria would also be considered sidelighting approaches.
First, the direct solar component is not needed to provide adequate daylight factors illuminance in most climates during most of the day. Second, direct solar radiation brings unwanted heat gain—which if admitted into a building will greatly decrease the luminous efficacy of daylight. Third, direct solar radiation admittance greatly increases the potential for direct glare experiences.
Thus, some form of shading should be used in conjunction with sidelighting—the exception being north-facing windows. Admittance of solar radiation via sidelighting apertures as part of a direct gain passive heating system is an exception to the direct solar radiation exclusion discussed above.
The relationship of window height and hence ceiling height to room depth is an important consideration with respect to daylight factor. Window height is also a key determinant of views along with site conditions. Sidelighting systems often involve two distinct apertures—a lower view and daylight window and an upper daylight-only window associated with a light shelf. Windows, however, are not synonymous with sidelighting. How a given window sees the sky or not , how it is detailed, how it relates to the task plane and bounding room surfaces, and the type of glazing used are all important to a daylighting system.
Sidelighting favors tall, shallow rooms. Sidelighting is a very visible design strategy because apertures have a dominant presence.
Windows often define the character of a building facade. The relationship between windows and interior surfaces is an important design consideration, as such surfaces act as secondary light sources and assist with distribution and diffusion of daylight. Large areas of glazing can affect mean radiant temperatures in perimeter spaces, so an appropriate U-factor to mitigate glazing surface temperatures is another consideration.
It is thus critical that the daylighting and electric lighting systems in a space be closely coordinated and that appropriate controls to dim or turn off unnecessary electric lamps be provided. Continuous dimming controls have proven to be well accepted by users, but difficult to properly implement and maintain in practice.
This does not preclude the use of combined sidelighting and toplighting systems. The design of a sidelighting system is not a purely linear process. Several iterations are often necessary to determine the most appropriate implementation. Establish target daylight factors for each space and activity. Recommended daylight factors for various spaces can be found in the Daylight Factor strategy.
Maximize opportunities for daylighting without direct solar radiation by focusing upon the north and south orientations as prime locations SAMPLE PROBLEM A multistory office complex will be daylit by sidelighting in order to provide views to most workspaces.
A minimum daylight factor DF of 2. The majority of offices are arranged around a U-shaped opening facing south. This maximizes the facade area available for windows while providing some self-shading by the building itself. Similar to the first edition published in , the second edition of The Green Studio Handbook offers a useful introduction to green design. As noted in the title the content stays fairly schematic to help guide and introduce green strategies. This book purposely avoids creating a green building checklists and getting bogged down in technical details.
Add another edition? Copy and paste this code into your Wikipedia page. Need help? See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. The green studio handbook Alison G Kwok. Not in Library.See more about this book on Archive. This edition doesn't have a description welcome to the party song free download. Can you add one? Previews available tsudio English. Add another edition? Copy and the green studio handbook pdf free download this code into your Wikipedia page. Need help? See what's new with odf lending at the Internet Archive. The green studio handbook Alison G Kwok. Not in Library. Want to Read. Download for print-disabled. Check nearby libraries Library. Share this book Facebook. Last edited by CoverBot. May 22, History. An edition of The green studio handbook The green studio handbook pdf free download edition published in by Architectural Press in Oxford. Burlington, MA. Written in English handnook pages. Subjects ArchitectureBuildingCase studiesEnvironmental aspectsEnvironmental aspects of The green studio handbook pdf free downloadSustainable architectureTechnological innovations. The green studio handbook: environmental strategies for schematic designArchitectural Press. The green studio handbook — First published in Subjects ArchitectureBuildingCase studiesEnvironmental aspectsEnvironmental aspects of ArchitectureSustainable architectureTechnological innovations. Edition Notes Includes bibliographical references and index Genre Case studies. How To Get Book For Free? download The Green Studio Handbook, Second Edition: Environmental Strateg Full PDF. version. Read This First: We offer two ways. Jan 28, - [PDF DOWNLOAD] The Green Studio Handbook FREE by Alison G. Kwok. In the modern era like right now, many ways to get book you wanted. Page 5. Download and Read Online The Green Studio Handbook Alison. Kwok, Walter. The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design [Kwok, Alison, Grondzik, Walter] on monsitedechire.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying. The green studio handbook by Alison G Kwok, , Architectural Press edition, in English. Download for print-disabled. Check nearby libraries. monsitedechire.com The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design (3rd ed.) After you've bought this ebook, you can choose to download either the PDF Adobe Digital Editions (This is a free app specially developed for eBooks. provides an overview of The Green Studio Handbook, recently published as a resource for The Handbook provides a discussion of green design at the schematic Establish the ventilation inlet area (this is free area, adjusted for the actual. environment:monsitedechire.com The Green Studio Handbook is not intended to ser ve as a green building checklist, nor as a uct provides CFC- and HCFC-free insulation alternatives. Although it. The green studio handbook: environmental strategies for schematic design / Alison G. Kwok and Walter T. Grondzik. 9 Editions under this title. Cover for The. The Green Studio Handbook DISCLAIMER The information presented in this book has been assembled, derived, and develope. Start by pressing the button below! These books are full of projects that focus on just those techniques. Spring Conference Languange : en Publisher by : Lulu. What one chooses to research affects the way one sees the project and, therefore, what he or she makes of it and what can be done. These can be used in both urban and rural settings, are applicable to a wide variety of building types, and can be used in both new and existing construction. Working with environmental strategies is more than assembling parts, or the choosing of systems as if selecting from a menu. During schematic design, consider the benefits of admitting or rejecting solar heat and begin to think about glazing with a solar heat gain coefficient SHGC to best address solar concerns. Conceptual sketches and photographic examples illustrate each strategy. That is the challenge. The measurement of in-situ DF values would be an expected element of any serious post-occupancy evaluation POE of a daylit building. Lightweight construction such as wood frame is much more susceptible to abrupt temperature swings and must be effectively insulated,yet is a good choice in climates with little diurnal temperature change. The preliminary sizing of apertures undertaken during schematic design will be verified by more accurate modeling studies during design development. Normally the owner and the design team share similar values and objectives.