Who uses Linux? What is the difference between Unix and Linux? How was Linux created? Linux cheat sheets. Collaborative writing Democratic media Open publishing Participatory media Peer review.
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Gift economy Open innovation Open patent Open standard Sharing economy. Open government Open-source governance. Todd John Wilbanks. Categories : Free and open-source software Free software Software licenses. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. In , the Brazilian government has simultaneously encouraged the distribution of cheap computers running Linux throughout its poorer communities by subsidizing their purchase with tax breaks.
In April ,  Ecuador passed a similar law, Decree , designed to migrate the public sector to Libre Software. The Gendarmerie began its transition to open source software in when it replaced Microsoft Office with OpenOffice. One of the aim of this experts groups is also to establish lists of recommended open-source software to use in the French public administration.
In the German City of Munich , conversion of 15, PCs and laptops from Microsoft Windows-based operating systems to a Debian -based Linux environment called LiMux spanned the ten years of to The Ministry of Defence will over the next year-and-a-half install this suite of office productivity tools on some , PC workstations - making it Europe's second largest LibreOffice implementation. The switch was announced on September 15, , by the LibreItalia Association.
In January , the Government of Jordan announced a partnership with Ingres Corporation now named Actian , an open source database management company based in the United States, to promote open-source software use, starting with university systems in Jordan.
Malaysia launched the "Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Program", saving millions on proprietary software licenses until In the Government of Peru voted to adopt open source across all its bodies.
In the preamble to the bill, the Peruvian government stressed that the choice was made to ensure that key pillars of democracy were safeguarded: "The basic principles which inspire the Bill are linked to the basic guarantees of a state of law. United States. The public release is under a three-year pilot program and agencies are obliged to collect data on this pilot to gauge its performance.
The overall policy aims to reduce duplication, avoid vendor 'lock-in', and stimulate collaborative development.
The freedom to redistribute copies must include binary or executable forms of the program, as well as source code, for both modified and unmodified versions. Distributing programs in runnable form is necessary for conveniently installable free operating systems. It is OK if there is no way to produce a binary or executable form for a certain program since some languages don't support that feature , but you must have the freedom to redistribute such forms should you find or develop a way to make them.
Certain kinds of rules about the manner of distributing free software are acceptable, when they don't conflict with the central freedoms. For example, copyleft very simply stated is the rule that when redistributing the program, you cannot add restrictions to deny other people the central freedoms.
This rule does not conflict with the central freedoms; rather it protects them. In the GNU project, we use copyleft to protect the four freedoms legally for everyone. We believe there are important reasons why it is better to use copyleft. However, noncopylefted free software is ethical too. Rules about how to package a modified version are acceptable, if they don't substantively limit your freedom to release modified versions, or your freedom to make and use modified versions privately. Thus, it is acceptable for the license to require that you change the name of the modified version, remove a logo, or identify your modifications as yours.
Harvard Business School. Corporate Finance Institute. The Library of Economics and Liberty. Ivan T. Accessed May 22, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. World Economic Forum. But the qualities we are going to discuss are absolutely inevitable for testers. Without these must-have ones, testers will sooner or later risk being disengaged from their craft. This has to be first on the list. As a tester, you have to question anything and everything that is unclear.
Or thrice? What will happen if I post a comment with just a white space? If you don't ask the questions, your customers will. If you don't bring all the scenarios to test, your customers will. Bottom line: Never Assume. Stay Curious. Always Ask. Always Seek. This quality is really important but honestly, I am not sure how to develop it artificially. I strongly believe that it has to be in your DNA and we can only try to enhance it to perfection. But even those who are not born with a magnifying glass for an eye can develop the habit if you persistently try to look deeper and longer.
Satisfied with the test result? The Free Software Directory maintains a large database of free-software packages. Captura de pagina de manual de OpenSSL. Replicant 4. Libreoffice 5. From the s up until the early s, it was normal for computer users to have the software freedoms associated with free software, which was typically public-domain software. Organizations of users and suppliers, for example, SHARE , were formed to facilitate exchange of software.
As software was often written in an interpreted language such as BASIC , the source code was distributed to use these programs. Software was also shared and distributed as printed source code Type-in program in computer magazines like Creative Computing , SoftSide , Compute!
In United States vs. IBM , filed January 17, , the government charged that bundled software was anti-competitive. In the s and early s, the software industry began using technical measures such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs to prevent computer users from being able to study or adapt the software applications as they saw fit.
In , copyright law was extended to computer programs. In , Richard Stallman , one of the original authors of the popular Emacs program and a longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory , announced the GNU project , the purpose of which was to produce a completely non-proprietary Unix-compatible operating system, saying that he had become frustrated with the shift in climate surrounding the computer world and its users.
In his initial declaration of the project and its purpose, he specifically cited as a motivation his opposition to being asked to agree to non-disclosure agreements and restrictive licenses which prohibited the free sharing of potentially profitable in-development software, a prohibition directly contrary to the traditional hacker ethic.
He developed a free software definition and the concept of " copyleft ", designed to ensure software freedom for all. Some non-software industries are beginning to use techniques similar to those used in free software development for their research and development process; scientists, for example, are looking towards more open development processes, and hardware such as microchips are beginning to be developed with specifications released under copyleft licenses see the OpenCores project, for instance.
Creative Commons and the free-culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement. In , Richard Stallman , longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory , announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users.
The manifesto included significant explanation of the GNU philosophy, Free Software Definition and " copyleft " ideas. The Linux kernel , started by Linus Torvalds , was released as freely modifiable source code in The first licence was a proprietary software licence. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions.