wish free shipping promo code august 2017 Singapore helped suppress a mutiny by Indian troops against the British government. Volunteering provided enough soldiers at first, but high casualties soon required conscription, which was strongly opposed by Francophones. In the third Liberty Loan campaign ofmore than half of all families subscribed. When Germany expanded its standing army bymen inFrance extended compulsory military service from two to three years; similar measures taken by the Balkan powers and Italy led to increased expenditure by the Ottomans and World war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia. The Big Four Britain, France, the United States, and Italy imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia treaties agreed at the Paris Peace Conferencethe most well known being the German peace treaty: the Treaty of Versailles. Historian Heather Jones argues that the historiography has been reinvigorated by the cultural turn in recent years.">

world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia

world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia

After submarines sank seven US merchant ships, Wilson finally went to Congress calling for a declaration of war on Germany, which Congress voted on April 6, This helped overcome Wilson's reluctance to having the US fight alongside a country ruled by an absolutist monarch.

Pleased by the Provisional Government's pro-war stance, the US accorded the new government diplomatic recognition on March 9, Although the United States declared war on Germany on April 6, , it did not initially declare war on the other Central Powers , a state of affairs that Woodrow Wilson described as an "embarrassing obstacle" in his State of the Union speech. The home front saw a systematic mobilization of the entire population and the entire economy to produce the soldiers, food supplies, munitions, and money needed to win the war.

Although the United States entered the war in , there had been very little planning, or even recognition of the problems that the British and other Allies had to solve on their home fronts. As a result, the level of confusion was high in the first 12 months, then efficiency took control. The war came in the midst of the Progressive Era, when efficiency and expertise were highly valued. Therefore, the federal government set up a multitude of temporary agencies with , to 1,, new employees to bring together the expertise necessary to redirect the economy into the production of munitions and food necessary for the war, as well as for propaganda purposes.

The United States Food Administration under Herbert Hoover launched a massive campaign to teach Americans to economize on their food budgets and grow victory gardens in their backyards, where crops were produced for US soldiers. It managed the nation's food distribution and prices.

In the government was unprepared for the enormous economic and financial strains of the war. Washington hurriedly took direct control of the economy. A constitutional amendment legitimized income tax in ; its original very low levels were dramatically increased, especially at the demand of the Southern progressive elements.

North Carolina Congressman Claude Kitchin , chairman of the tax-writing Ways and Means Committee argued that since Eastern businessman had been leaders in calling for war, they should pay for it.

Above that level taxes began at the 2 percent rate in , jumping to 12 percent in As a result, the richest 22 percent of American taxpayers paid 96 percent of individual income taxes. Businesses faced a series of new taxes, especially on "excess profits" ranging from 20 percent to 80 percent on profits above pre-war levels. There were also excise taxes that everyone paid who purchased an automobile, jewelry, camera, or a motorboat.

Movie stars and other celebrities, supported by millions of posters, and an army of Four-Minute Men speakers explained the importance of buying bonds. In the third Liberty Loan campaign of , more than half of all families subscribed.

The new Federal Reserve system encouraged banks to loan families money to buy bonds. All the bonds were redeemed, with interest, after the war.

Ireland in the 20th Century. London: Random Houe. Retrieved 9 February War in History. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 5 August The Price of Glory ed. Allen Lane. Memorial Gates Trust. Retrieved 12 December British administration and the Amritsar massacre. Mittal Publications. Retrieved 5 July The Independent. Retrieved 23 July Trench Warfare. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 19 April American College of Physicians.

Retrieved 28 September The Diplomat. Retrieved 28 April Naval History. World Wars in Depth. Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 12 March A world at total war: global conflict and the politics of destruction, — Publications of the German Historical Institute.

Library of Congress Country Studies. Indiana University Press. Retrieved 27 September The Middle East and Islamic world reader 4th ed. New York: Grove Press. Minneapolis, Minn. The Holocaust and Genocides in Europe. New York: Continuum Publishing Corporation. Exisle Publishing. Sukru Princeton University Press. Italy and the world war. London: Faber and Faber. History of Dalmatia. Oxford, England; New York: Berg. History of Transylvania. Cambridge University Press.

Deutsche Welle. London: Macmillan. Hunzeker 11 November Washington Post. Briscoe Military Operations. Maps compiled by A. London: HM Stationery Office. In Sheppard, Eric William ed. A Short History of the British Army 4th ed. First World War. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 13 May London: John Murray.

Woodrow Wilson: A Biography , p. Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 27 July London: COnway. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 29 October Catharines, ON: Vanwell. London: Pan. CEF Books. Revolution in Kiel. In Fleischhauer; Turowski eds. Kieler Erinnerungsorte. League of Nations Photo Archive. Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 21 November Trento e Trieste.

Archived from the original PDF on 2 October Archived from the original on 27 August The First World War, — Berkeley: University of California Press. The Economics of War. New York: Prentice-Hall. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Infobase Publishing. Cengage Learning. The New York Times.

The London Gazette. London: Routledge. Germany: A New History. Harvard U. Horne, John ed. Mourning and Memory, — A Companion to World War I.

Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 2 May Canadian War Museum. Retrieved 22 October CBC News. Archived from the original on 11 May After an initial success, a British offensive is halted. Battle of 18 March. The Russians capture the fortress. First Battle of Woevre. The Ottomans besiege the Armenian city of Van. The Second Battle of Ypres , which ends in a stalemate. Germany first uses poison gas.

Deportation of Armenian intellectuals to Ankara , first act of the Armenian Genocide. Treaty of London between the Entente and Italy. First Battle of Krithia. The Allied advance is repelled. Italy revokes its commitment to a defensive alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Second Battle of Krithia. The Allied attempts at advancing are thwarted again. The British liner Lusitania is sunk by a German U-boat. Second Battle of Artois. Lviv is again in Austrian hands. Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary. Battle of Bellewaarde , final phase of the Second Battle of Ypres.

Second Battle of Garua. Third Battle of Krithia. Yet another Allied failure. Mackensen breaks again through the Russian lines in the Lviv area. First Battle of the Isonzo. The British win the Battle of Gully Ravine. The German forces in South-West Africa surrender. Battle of Manzikert. Second Battle of the Isonzo. First Victoria Cross awarded to a British combat pilot. Battle of Kara Killisse. Battle of Lone Pine , part of the August Offensive.

Battle of Krithia Vineyard , part of the August Offensive. Battle of Sari Bair , part of the August Offensive. Last and unsuccessful attempt by the British to seize the Gallipoli peninsula. Battle of the Nek , a phase of the August Offensive. Battle of Chunuk Bair , a phase of the August Offensive. Scimitar Hill , a phase of the August Offensive. Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire. Sventiany Offensive , a phase of the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive.

The Zimmerwald Conference of anti-militarist European socialist parties is held in Zimmerwald , Switzerland. Third Battle of Artois. The Germans occupy Vilnius. Battle of Loos , a major British offensive, fails. Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt , a phase of the Battle of Loos. Second Battle of Champagne.

Allies land troops at Salonika in Greece to aid Serbia. Serbia is invaded by Germany , Austria-Hungary , and Bulgaria. Bulgaria declares war on Serbia [23]. Customization Upgrades.

Information Maps. Content Campaigns. They wore a scarf around their neck. The scarf kept the wind from blowing against their neck when they turned their head. The German leaders decided to use submarines. These submarines were named U-boats , from the German word Unterseeboot meaning underwater boat.

They did not follow the laws of war , because the British would be able to destroy them if they did. America was selling weapons to Germany's enemies but not to Germany, thus not being neutral. Many American and British noncombatants were killed by the submarines. Germany also wrote a secret telegram note to Mexico in code suggesting that the two countries work together to attack the United States.

This note is called the Zimmerman Telegram because Arthur Zimmerman sent it. It offered Mexico land in the southwestern United States that the United States took in previous wars. Spies from the United Kingdom found out about the note and told the United States. American people became angry and many decided that they wanted their country to enter the war against Germany.

For these and other reasons, on April 6, the United States declared war against Germany and became part of the Allies. The defeat of Russia on the Eastern Front caused unrest inside the Empire. In , there was a revolution in Russia. The Tsar Nicholas II had to say he would not be Tsar any more, and that the people should have power.

At first it was thought that Russia would fight harder now that the Tsar was gone. However, the Russian people did not want to fight anymore, because there was not sufficient food, appropriate armament, or adequate roads to supply its army. The war had been putting burdens on them, and many of them were poor and hungry. They began to hate their new government because it would not stop the war.

You can also request a picture. Have a browse through Category:Unidentified subjects. If you find something you can identify, write a note on the item's talk page. Check out all you need to know at our Contributing your own work guide. To explore more ways you can contribute to this project, check out the Community Portal. Personnel Military recruitment Conscription Recruit training Military specialism Women in the military Children in the military Transgender people and military service Sexual harassment in the military Conscientious objection Counter recruitment.

Logistics Military—industrial complex Arms industry Materiel Supply chain management. Mongol conquests. Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming dynasty. Late Bronze Age collapse. Greece , Asia Minor , Sicily. Wars of Alexander the Great. Greece , Asia Minor. Roman—Persian Wars. Asia Minor , Achaea , Aegean Sea. Byzantine—Sassanid wars. Muslim conquests. Byzantine—Ottoman Wars. Transportation, in general, was a challenge, especially when Britain and Germany each tried to intercept merchant ships headed for the enemy.

Finance was a special challenge. Germany financed the Central Powers. Britain financed the Allies until when it ran out of money and had to borrow from the United States. The U. The victorious Allies looked to defeated Germany in to pay reparations that would cover some of their costs. Above all, it was essential to conduct the mobilization in such a way that the short term confidence of the people was maintained, the long-term power of the political establishment was upheld, and the long-term economic health of the nation was preserved.

In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war's end there was no meat. The Western Front quickly stabilized, with almost no movement of more than a few hundred yards. The greatest single expenditure on both sides was for artillery shells, the chief weapon in the war. Since the front was highly stable, both sides built elaborate railway networks that brought supplies within a mile or two of the front lines, with horse-drawn wagons used for the final deliveries.

In the ten-month battle at Verdun, the French and Germans fired some 10 million shells in all, weighing 1. The German counter-blockade with U-Boats was defeated by the convoy system and massive American shipbuilding. Britain paid the war costs of most of its Allies until it ran out of money, then the US took over, funding those Allies and Britain as well.

The War saw a decline of civilian consumption, with a major reallocation to munitions. Despite fears in that munitions production was lagging, the output was more than adequate. The annual output of artillery grew from 91 guns in to in Warplanes soared from in to in , while the production of machine guns went from to , By , Britain was funding most of the Empire's war expenditures, all of Italy's and two thirds of the war costs of France and Russia, plus smaller nations as well.

Treasury in — The financing was generally successful, [9] as the City's strong financial position minimized the damaging effects of inflation, as opposed to much worse conditions in Germany. Trade unions were encouraged as membership grew from 4. Energy was a critical factor for the British war effort. Most of the energy supplies came from coal mines in Britain, where the issue was labour supply.

Critical however was the flow of oil for ships, lorries and industrial use. There were no oil wells in Britain so everything was imported. In , total British consumption was million barrels, of which 85 percent was supplied by the United States, and 6 percent by Mexico. Convoys and the construction of new tankers solved the German threat, while tight government controls guaranteed that all essential needs were covered.

An oil crisis occurred in Britain due to the German submarine campaign. Archbold between May and September. The only solution to the crisis lay with increased oil shipment from America. The plan was scaled back considerably due to opposition from the United States. Toward the end of the war, Japan increasingly filled orders for needed war material for its European allies. The wartime boom helped to diversify the country's industry, increase its exports, and transform Japan from a debtor to a creditor nation for the first time.

Exports quadrupled from to The massive capital influx into Japan and the subsequent industrial boom led to rapid inflation. In August , rice riots caused by this inflation erupted in towns and cities throughout Japan. The prosperity brought on by World War I did not last. The German spring offensive had made unexpected major gains, and a scapegoat was needed.

Asquith, the Liberal leader in the House, took up the allegations and attacked Lloyd George also a Liberal , which further split the Liberal Party. While Asquith's presentation was poorly done, Lloyd George vigorously defended his position, treating the debate as a vote of confidence. He won over the House with a powerful refutation of Maurice's allegations.

The main results were to strengthen Lloyd George, weaken Asquith, end public criticism of overall strategy, and strengthen civilian control of the military. Meanwhile, the German offensive stalled. By summer the Americans were sending 10, fresh men a day to the Western Front, a more rapid response made possible by leaving their equipment behind and using British and French munitions.

The German army had used up its last reserves and was steadily shrinking in number and weakening in resolve. Victory came on November 11, Prime Minister David Lloyd George was clear about how important the women were:. The militant suffragette movement was suspended during the war, and at the time people credited the new patriotic roles women played as earning them the vote in Pugh argues that enfranchising soldiers primarily and women secondarily was decided by senior politicians in In the absence of major women's groups demanding for equal suffrage, the government's conference recommended limited, age-restricted women's suffrage.

The suffragettes had been weakened, Pugh argues, by repeated failures before and by the disorganizing effects of war mobilization; therefore they quietly accepted these restrictions, which were approved in by a majority of the War Ministry and each political party in Parliament.

Women in Britain finally achieved suffrage on the same terms as men in The British Empire provided imports of food and raw material, worldwide network of naval bases, and a steady flow of soldiers and workers into Britain. The , men in service were most notable for combat in the trenches of the Western Front ; there were 67, war dead and , wounded.

This total does not include the 2, deaths and 9, injuries in December when a munitions ship exploded in Halifax. Volunteering provided enough soldiers at first, but high casualties soon required conscription, which was strongly opposed by Francophones. The Conscription Crisis of saw the Liberal Party ripped apart, to the advantage of the Conservatives Prime Minister Robert Borden , who led a Unionist coalition to a landslide victory in Distrusting the loyalties of Canadians of German ethnicity and, especially, recent immigrants from the Ukraine who were citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Empire , the government interned thousands of aliens.

The war validated Canada's new world role, in an almost-equal partnership with Britain in the Commonwealth of Nations. Arguing that Canada had become a true nation on the battlefields of Europe, Borden demanded and received a separate seat for Canada at the Paris Peace Conference of Canada's military and civilian participation in the First World War strengthened a sense of British-Canadian nationhood among the Anglophones English speakers.

The Francophones French speakers supported the war at first, but pulled back and stood aloof after because of language disputes at home. Heroic memories centered around the Battle of Vimy Ridge were the unified Canadian corps captured Vimy ridge, a position that the French and British armies had failed to capture and " Canada's Hundred Days " battles of which saw the Canadian corps of , defeat one fourth of the German Army on the Western Front.

Billy Hughes , prime minister from October , expanded the government's role in the economy, while dealing with intense debates over the issue of conscription. From a population of five million, , men enlisted; , went overseas to fight during the First World War.

They were all volunteers, since the political battle for compulsory conscription failed. Some 58, died and , were wounded. He says the war turned a peaceful nation into "one that was violent, aggressive, angst- and conflict-ridden, torn apart by invisible front lines of sectarian division, ethnic conflict and socio-economic and political upheaval. Racist hostility was high toward nonwhites, including Pacific Islanders, Chinese and Aborigines. The campaign was a total failure militarily and 8, Australians died.

However the memory was all-important, for it transformed the Australian mind and became an iconic element of the Australian identity and the founding moment of nationhood.

Japan participated in World War I from to in an alliance with Entente Powers and played an important role in securing the sea lanes in the Sar Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Imperial German Navy as the member world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia the Allies. Politically, the Japanese Empire seized the opportunity to expand its sphere of influence in Chinaand to gain recognition as a great power in postwar geopolitics. Japan's military, taking advantage of the great distances and Imperial Germany 's preoccupation with the war in Europeseized German possessions in the Pacific and East Asia, but there was no large-scale mobilization of the economy. They enlisted Sun Yat-sen —then in exile in Japan, but they had little success. It captured Germany's Micronesian territories north of the equator, and ruled the islands until they were transitioned to encyclopedla control in The operation gave the Navy a rationale for enlarging its budget to double the Army budget and expanding world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia fleet. The Navy thus gained significant political influence over national and international affairs. In the first week of World War I Japan proposed to the United Kingdom, the shape of water online free streaming ally sincethat Japan would enter the war if wxr could take Germany's Pacific territories. Japanese forces quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East. During October, acting virtually independently of the civil government, the Imperial World war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia Navy seized several of Germany's island colonies in the Pacific - the MarianaWorld war i wikipedia the free encyclopediaand Marshall Islands - with virtually no resistance. The Japanese Navy conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids against German-held wikippedia targets in Shandong province and wprld in Qiaozhou Bay from the seaplane-carrier Wakamiya. On 6 September a seaplane launched by Wakamiya unsuccessfully ear the Worlc cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth and the German gunboat Jaguar with bombs. The Siege of Tsingtao concluded with the surrender of German colonial forces on 7 November In World war i wikipedia the free encyclopediaby request of the Imperial Japanese Army, the Japanese Red Cross Society put together three squads, each composed of one surgeon and twenty nurses, watch free korean drama with chinese subtitles were dispatched to Europe on a five-month assignment. The arrival of these nurses received wide press coverage, and their host countries subsequently asked for these teams to extend their assignment to fifteen months. In Februarymarines wirld the Imperial Japanese Encyclopefia ships based in Singapore helped suppress a mutiny by Indian troops against the British government. If achieved, the Twenty-One Demands wikiedia have essentially reduced World war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia to a Japanese protectorateand at the expense of numerous privileges already enjoyed by the European powers in their respective spheres of influence within China. In the face of slow negotiations with the Chinese government, widespread and increasing anti-Japanese sentiments, and international condemnation particularly from the United StatesJapan withdrew the final group of demands, and a treaty was signed by China world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia 25 May world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia World War I (WWI or WW1), also called the First World War, began on July 28, and lasted until November 11, The war was a global war that lasted. Timeline of World War I. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Accessibility icon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Two American soldiers run towards a bunker. The United States declared war on Germany on April 6, , nearly three years after World. A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". While a World war. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. British poster encouraging investment in war bonds. The economic history of World War I covers the methods used by the First World War. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The home front during World War I covers the domestic, economic, social and political histories. Japan during World War I. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. History of Japan. British Troops Marching in Mesopotamia - Middle Eastern theatre of World War I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Soldier Songs - online songbook - contents. - Battle of Pavia - Italian Wars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Even during the World Wars, Switzerland was able to be. Steven SewellWriting. Sep 22, - First Barbary War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Russia was allied with Serbia. BBC Radio 4. These laws could with certain exceptions deviate from the constitution. CRC Press. Over half the German regiments in Belgium were involved in major incidents. Largely devoid of vegetation, the bare rock is covered by a layer of guano derived from the large numbers of South Georgia shags that nest there. Chemical weapons were used in the war despite the Hague Conventions of and having outlawed the use of such weapons in warfare. The Origins of the Second World War. Retrieved 18 May Because Russia's European ports were not safe, the corps was evacuated by a long detour via the port of Vladivostok. Wilhelm Frick Heinrich Himmler. world war i wikipedia the free encyclopedia