Spring Bridge. Summer Bridge. Fall Bridge. Winter Bridge. Christmas Bridge. Easter Bridge. Halloween Bridge. Thanksgiving Bridge. Bridge has many players in dozens of lounges.
Many players are regulars at the tables, though a lot of players are sitting down to play for the first time. For a contract in notrump, the declaring side is awarded 40 points for the first odd trick and 30 points for the remaining odd tricks.
Contract points are doubled or quadrupled if the contract is respectively doubled or redoubled. In rubber bridge, a partnership wins one game once it has accumulated contract points; excess contract points do not carry over to the next game.
A partnership that wins two games wins the rubber, receiving a bonus of points if the opponents have won a game, and points if they have not. Overtricks score the same number of points per odd trick, although their doubled and redoubled values differ. A larger bonus is awarded if the declaring side makes a small slam or grand slam, a contract of 12 or 13 tricks respectively. If the declaring side is not vulnerable, a small slam gets points, and a grand slam points. If the declaring side is vulnerable, a small slam is points and a grand slam is 1, In rubber bridge, the rubber finishes when a partnership has won two games, but the partnership receiving the most overall points wins the rubber.
Undertricks are scored in both variations as follows:  . The rules of the game are referred to as the laws as promulgated by various bridge organizations. In addition to the basic rules of play, there are many additional rules covering playing conditions and the rectification of irregularities, which are primarily for use by tournament directors who act as referees and have overall control of procedures during competitions.
But various details of procedure are left to the discretion of the zonal bridge organisation for tournaments under their aegis and some for example, the choice of movement to the sponsoring organisation for example, the club.
Some zonal organisations of the WBF also publish editions of the Laws. There are no universally accepted rules for rubber bridge, but some zonal organisations have published their own.
The majority of rules mirror those of duplicate bridge in the bidding and play and differ primarily in procedures for dealing and scoring.
In , the WBF promulgated a set of Laws for online play. Bridge is a game of skill played with randomly dealt cards, which makes it also a game of chance , or more exactly, a tactical game with inbuilt randomness, imperfect knowledge and restricted communication. The chance element is in the deal of the cards; in duplicate bridge some of the chance element is eliminated by comparing results of multiple pairs in identical situations.
This is achievable when there are eight or more players, sitting at two or more tables, and the deals from each table are preserved and passed to the next table, thereby duplicating them for the other table s of players. At the end of a session, the scores for each deal are compared, and the most points are awarded to the players doing the best with each particular deal.
This measures relative skill but still with an element of luck because each pair or team is being judged only on the ability to bid with, and play, the same cards as other players.
Duplicate bridge is played in clubs and tournaments, which can gather as many as several hundred players. Duplicate bridge is a mind sport , and its popularity gradually became comparable to that of chess , with which it is often compared for its complexity and the mental skills required for high-level competition. Bridge and chess are the only "mind sports" recognized by the International Olympic Committee , although they were not found eligible for the main Olympic program. The basic premise of duplicate bridge had previously been used for whist matches as early as Initially, bridge was not thought to be suitable for duplicate competition; it was not until the s that auction bridge tournaments became popular.
In when contract bridge first evolved, bridge tournaments were becoming popular, but the rules were somewhat in flux, and several different organizing bodies were involved in tournament sponsorship: the American Bridge League formerly the American Auction Bridge League , which changed its name in , the American Whist League , and the United States Bridge Association.
In , the first officially recognized world championship was held. In , the World Bridge Federation WBF was founded to promote bridge worldwide, coordinate periodic revision to the Laws each ten years, next in and conduct world championships.
In tournaments, " bidding boxes " are frequently used, as noted above. These avoid the possibility of players at other tables hearing any spoken bids. The bidding cards are laid out in sequence as the auction progresses. Although it is not a formal rule, many clubs adopt a protocol that the bidding cards stay revealed until the first playing card is tabled, after which point the bidding cards are put away. In top national and international events, " bidding screens " are used.
These are placed diagonally across the table, preventing partners from seeing each other during the game; often the screen is removed after the auction is complete. Much of the complexity in bridge arises from the difficulty of arriving at a good final contract in the auction or deciding to let the opponents declare the contract. Chat, hang out and meet bridge players from all over the world.
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